Lesson 7.2: Printer Maintenance and Calibration

Maintaining and calibrating your 3D printer is essential to ensure that it operates at peak performance and produces high-quality prints. Regular maintenance routines and calibration help prevent issues like misalignment, clogs, and poor adhesion. Here’s how to maintain and calibrate your 3D printer:

Regular Maintenance Routines

  • Leveling: Calibrate the print bed to make sure it’s perfectly level. Most 3D printers have built-in bed leveling procedures.
  • Check Fasteners: Periodically check and tighten bed leveling knobs or screws to maintain proper leveling.

Tighten Belts: Ensure that all the belts in your printer are properly tensioned. Loose belts can lead to print artifacts and inaccuracies.

Lubricate Moving Parts: Regularly apply lubricant to moving parts like rods and linear bearings to reduce friction and wear.

Cooling Fans: Check and clean cooling fans, which are essential for temperature control. Clogged fans can lead to overheating and warped prints.

Calibrate Extrusion: Calibrate the extruder steps/mm to ensure that the printer is correctly extruding the right amount of filament. You can use calibration objects to fine-tune this.

Check for Updates: Keep your printer’s firmware and slicing software up to date. Manufacturers release updates to improve performance and add features.


Calibration for Optimal Print Quality

Manual Bed Leveling: For printers without automatic bed leveling, perform manual bed leveling. This involves adjusting the bed’s four corners to be perfectly level with respect to the nozzle.

Extruder Steps/mm: To calibrate extrusion, measure the length of filament extruded versus what’s expected. Adjust the extruder’s steps per millimeter in the firmware until the extrusion matches the desired length.

Flow Calibration: To optimize extrusion further, calibrate the flow rate. Print a calibration cube or single-walled object, and adjust the flow rate percentage until the walls are the desired thickness.

Temperature Tower: Print a temperature tower to find the optimal temperature for your filament. Adjust the print temperature for the best layer adhesion and print quality.

Retraction Settings: Calibrate retraction settings to minimize stringing. Print a retraction test object and adjust settings like retraction distance and speed.

Speed and Acceleration: Optimise print speed and acceleration settings. Too high a print speed can lead to print artifacts, while too low a speed can result in longer print times.

Layer Settings: Fine-tune layer height and line width settings for the best balance between print quality and speed.


Regularly scheduled maintenance and calibration help ensure that your 3D printer is in optimal condition and capable of producing high-quality prints. By following these practices, you can reduce printing issues, minimise downtime, and extend the life of your 3D printer.